Friday, May 27, 2016

Zika data point to sexual transmission in women – CIDRAP

Women in the sexually energetic age-group are overwhelmingly a lot more most likely compared to men to be infected along with Zika virus, along with sexual transmission the most most likely cause, according to a brand-new report based on data from the city of Rio de Janeiro from Brazilian researchers.

In others developments, scientists from Emory University today revealed that Zika can easily infect two types of placental cells, which could explain exactly how the virus passes from mothers to their babies.

Threat to pregnant women

The group set out to see if there were any age-related patterns for Zika infections and to gauge the role of sexual transmission in disease incidence using data from the city’s good health secretariat. For comparison, they additionally looked at dengue levels by age for the same Zika-energetic period in 2015 and 2016, and for 2013 prior to Zika virus was believed to have actually reached Rio. They published their findings yesterday in bioRxiv.

Even after correcting for bias because of systematic testing for Zika virus in pregnant women, they found 90% a lot more registered Zika cases per 100,000 population in women ages 15 to 65, defined as the sexually energetic age-group, compared along with men of the same age.

To tease out whether the better levels in women are linked to visiting doctors a lot more often, they compared the incidence of dengue in men and women in 2015 and 2013. For both years, dengue infections were 30% a lot more most likely to be reported in women.

Markedly better Zika levels in women support a considerable role of sexual transmission in the spread of the virus, though others factors could insight explain the better incidence, the authors concluded. Two such examples are that women may be a lot more most likely to continue to be home, where they are exposed to the mosquito or pregnant women along with febrile illnesses could see a doctor when they have actually symptoms as a result of a fear of complications.

The researchers said the consequence of the better incidence of Zika infections in childbearing-age women might be higher-than-expected numbers of babies born along with birth defects compared to if the disease were only transmitted by mosquitoes.

Virus can easily replicate in placental cells

In findings that give brand-new clues on exactly how Zika virus passes from infected mothers to producing fetuses, researchers from Emory University identified two types of placental cells that may be involved. They published their report today in Cell Host and Microbe.

To determine the cell types, they infected different cell types from 5 donated full-term human placentas along with the Zika strain currently circulating in the Caribbean.

They detected infection in Hofbauer cells, which have actually direct access to fetal blood vessels. Hofbauer cells are placental macrophages that originate from connective tissue stem cells of the producing fetus.

Senior author Mehul Suthar, PhD, assistant professor of pediatrics at Emory University School of Medicine, said in a Cell Press media release that yet another group had earlier detected viral antigen in Hofbauer cells in the placental tissue of a fetus that died from a Zika virus infection.

The Emory group additionally found infection in cytotrophoblasts—cells found in the middle layer of the placenta—however to a lesser extent. Their findings suggest that the virus can easily cross the outermost placental layer, made up of cells known as syncytiotrophoblasts, and target others cells, such as Hofbauer cells and cytotrophoblasts, where it can easily replicate.

Suthar said one interesting findings was that placental cells from the 5 different donors showed different viral replication levels over time, suggesting that host factors could play a role in immune response to Zika virus. “Just what our study suggests is not everyone is predisposed to having the virus replicate in the placenta, however the full meaning of this has to be explored further,” he said.

Totals grow in US travelers, pregnant women

In divide updates yesterday the US Centers for Disease Regulate and Prevention (CDC) reported a lot more Zika infections in US travelers, residents of US territories where local transmission is occurring, and pregnant women.

Affected territories reported 103 a lot more Zika illnesses, most of them in Puerto Rico, raising the total to 935 local infections. So far 5 related Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases have actually been reported.

On the mainland, US states reported 47 a lot more Zika cases, lifting that total to 591. States have actually confirmed 11 sexually transmitted Zika cases, along along with 1 GBS case.

Meanwhile, Zika pregnancy registries on the US mainland and Puerto Rico as of could 19 reported 31 a lot more infections, raising the total to 310, the CDC said yesterday. Of the brand-new total, 168 involve US women on the mainland and 142 from US territories.

Last week the CDC announced a modification in the means it reports the number of pregnant women along with Zika virus, which takes in to account those along with lab-confirmed asymptomatic infections. According to last week’s total, the CDC was monitoring 279 cases.

Other developments

  • The only US distributor of traps to collect Aedes mosquitoes, which can easily carry Zika, has actually a backlog of 1,950 orders from governments and businesses, the Associated Press (AP) reported yesterday. however a representative of the US distributor, BioQuip Products, Inc., said she anticipates a shipment of 1,500 traps in the next few days that must ease much of the backlog of the German-made traps. Florida reported it has actually received only regarding 120 of the 310 traps it has actually ordered.
  • The Republican-led US Estate has actually moved to officially start Zika-funding talks along with the Senate however then immediately left Washington, D.C., for regarding a 2-week recess, according to a divide AP report today. The Estate passed a bill for $622 million after the Senate had passed one for $1.1 billion. Three months ago President Obama requested $1.9 billion.
  • Zika cases in Central and South America keep on to decline, however are rising in most Caribbean countries and territories, the Pan American good health Organization (PAHO) said yesterday in its weekly update. Little has actually changed in terms of areas newly affected by the virus or its complications, however PAHO offered a glimpse of different epidemiologic patterns in different countries, noting that Brazil’s Pernambuco state could see yet another microcephaly uptick in September and October, based on a Zika spike it endured in the middle of February.

See also:

May 26 bioRxiv abstract

May 27 Cell Host Microbe abstract

May 28 Cell Press media release

May 25 CDC number of cases in the United States and territories

May 26 CDC number of Zika cases in pregnant women

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